Research has shown that women are twice as likely to be affected by panic attacks. The mean age at onset for panic attack in US is approximately 22-23 years old. This is more related to a weaker autonomic response to emotional states in older individual compared to younger individuals. Negative affectivity (i.e., proneness to experiencing negative emotions) and anxiety sensitivity (i.e., the disposition to believe that symptoms of anxiety are harmful) are risk factors for the onset of panic attacks, as well as worry about panic. Childhood experiences of sexual or physical abuse are more common in panic disorder. Smoking is a risk factor also for panic attacks and panic disorders. Personal stressors (e.g., interpersonal conflicts, diseases, or death in family, use of illicit drugs) are often identified as stressors before the first panic attack.
Alcohol has become part of the lifestyle of being an Expat in Singapore. For many people, it is not unusual to enjoy a bottle of wine with the meals, it’s a must to add some fun to the parties, and it’s something to do to de-stress and unwind at the end of a hard day. What some people don’t realize is that they have crossed the line from being a social drinker to having alcohol problems. Many people have this stereotypical picture of an alcoholic being someone who needs a drink every day, drinks from the moment they open their eyes, can’t go to work, sleep on the street, etc. What they don’t realize, addiction is defined by control: who has the control? You or the alcohol?
Ms Ho Shee Wai